"Communication is one of the more basic needs of a person. "I communicate" it means that I express and exchange sentiments, conditions,thoughts..."
The most characteristic form of communication of a person, apart from special situations, is the oral and written language.
Language has a direct relation with the intelligence, the sentiments and more general with the personality of the person. Speech disorder means disorder in the psychological situation of the person. Individuals with speech disorders cannot use speech properly and cannot communicate (in an era where utilisation of speech is so much vital)
The science of Speech Therapy
The science that deals with the disorders in written oral language is logotherapy. The expert that can intervene is the speech therapist and the intervention each time is adapted in the extent and gravity of the problem and in the needs of the individual with communication problems.
Conditions for smooth development of speech:
- Maturity of Nervous system
- Physiologic Sense of hearing
- Bodily and Mental Health
- Physiologic level of intellectual operations
- The child accepts rich audiovisual stimuli from his environment.
Stages of Physiologic Growth of Language and Speech from 3 until 6 years old.
3-4 years old
- The children in this stage are complicated in the expression, and we are in the period of physiologic stuttering, since the child in his effort to say a lot of things, he/she stutters.
- In this age the child goes through intense emotions, since he/she is impressed by a lot of things.
- Parents should not oppress the child, and neither correct him/her.
4-5 years old
- His/her articulation is improved continuously, as the structure of sentences.
- His/her vocabulary is enriched with new words and meanings.
- He/she begins to communicate with other children, and the interests around speech begin to be extended.
6 years old
- The child's basic speech has been developed
- There are no syntactic and grammatical errors.
- The articulation is correct.
- The child is ready not only for oral communication but also for written.
- The child should play.
Categorisation of Communication Disorders:
- Developmental phonological disorders.
- Developmental linguistic disorders.
- Developmental articular disorders:
- Developmental dyspraxia.
- Articular disorders because of anatomic abnormalities.
- Voice disorders.
- Disorders of written language
- Learning difficulties (Dyslexia).
- Pragmatic disorders.
- Psychiatric disorders.
- Intellectual deprival.
- Disorders of ingestion.
- Neurological diseases.